Electrical Engineering




Circuit Design Program | KiCAD - Free electronic design automation (EDA) suite. Includes schematic design (theoretical diagram) and layout design (production drawing). Open source and sponsored by CERN. Excellent entry-point program for circuit board prototyping and production.


Electronic Parts Distributor | North America - Examples: Mouser and Digikey. Provides parametric search across millions of components.

Discrete Electronics






Pulse Width Modulation

Energy Transformations

Piezoelectric Effect

Circuit Protection

Consider the air gaps in the circuit board (ex. thru-holes), vapor permeability of materials in the circuit assembly, mounting strength of the assembly within the enclosure, and the penetration of foreign particles into the enclosure.

Circuit Board

Solder Mask

Conformal Coating

Conformal coating is a light layer of protective compound applied on the surface of a circuit assembly. [Video]

Assembly Potting

Potting is the complete or partial submersion of a circuit assembly with sealing compound. The compound may be injected within either a reusable open mold or the outer shell of the assembly. [Video]

Structural Enclosure

High Frequency Circuit Design

Trace Length and Curvature

Skin Effect


Screen printing, also known as silk screening, is the process of drawing ink through a mesh to print text and images on plastics and metals. Screen printing involves thermal setting of the ink by oven heating. Quality screen printing sets sharp and flat to the surface and does not rub off easily. Screen printing is a popular method of inscribing labels and symbols on electronic enclosures. [Video]

Enclosure Design


Common enclosure material. Low cost, light weight, ease of molding, excellent electrical insulation. Versatility for built-in hinges, locking tabs, auto-tapping screw mounts. Generally suited for indoor applications. Plastics are prone temperature; brittle in cold, warps in heat.

Sheet Metal

Common industrial enclosure material. Durability, ease of interface panel production. Heavier than plastic, but has cost-effective abrasion and impact resistance across a wide temperature range. Holes and slots easily formed for installation of ports, buttons, switches.

Extruded Metal

Common industrial enclosure material. Durability and rigidity. Often forms the frame of metal enclosures that combine the strength of extrusions with the versatility of sheet metal. Extrusions are strong, but the material usually limited to aluminum for saving weight.


Standoffs provide secure mounting and physical isolation between the circuit assembly and its enclosure.

Gaskets seal the enclosure that contains the circuit assembly. Form-in-place (FIP) gaskets are made by looping a continuous bead of sealing compound on the closure surface. [Video]

Overmolding is the complete submersion of a circuit assembly with sealing compound injected within a closed, pressurized mold. [Video]