Revised 2018.01.21


Bare metal is a physical server; a case enclosing a MOBO, CPU, RAM, SSD, and PSU.

Virtualization is software that runs on a physical server to split its computing power and storage capacity into virtual servers. This is how virtual private servers (VPS) and virtual shared servers are created.

Virtual private servers guarantee a minimum performance level because the virtualization allocates a specific chunk of the physical server's compute and storage ability to that particular virtual server. Because of the allocations, a single physical server can only fit so many virtual private servers.

Virtual shared servers have no such allocations, so the performance of any single virtual shared server is largely dependent on how heavily the physical server is getting used by the other shared servers. Because no allocations are made, a single physical server can fit an enormous number of virtual shared servers.

Servers are typically on-prem (on the premises of the company building), colo (co-located with servers of other companies in a datacenter), or cloud (renting from a server hosting provider).

Servers connected to the internet have an IP address. Internet service providers (ISP) buy IP addresses from the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA); then they assign them to your computer by adding a new record with a fresh IP address and your modem's MAC address into their routing database.

Server communication occurs between server ports. Web servers typically reply at port 80 for HTTP and port 443 for HTTPS and port 22 for SSH.

Internet protocols define standards for how binary data should be prepared, transmitted, received, interpreted, and acted on.


Web Application Scaling | Article by DigitalOcean

CPU, Memory, Hard Drive

Binary State. Bits and bytes.

Character Encoding. ASCII, hexadecimals.

Computer Language Spectrum. Binary, Assembly, C, Python.

Files and Folders.

Order of Operations.